Archives mensuelles : janvier 2023

17 février 2023 : conférence de Paehwan Seol – Paris

 

Paehwan Seol, maître de conférences à l’université Nationale Chonnam en Corée du sud, donnera une conférence le vendredi 17 février de 14-16h dans le cadre du séminaire des études mongoles et tibétaines sur le thème suivant : “The Aromatics Network in the Mongol Empire―Aromatics, Palaces, Shrines, and Gods of the Sacred Mountains and Rivers

Lieu : 54 boulevard Raspail, sous-sol, salle 15.

Résumé

This study analyzes the vast network of aromatics and incense exchange, including its operation, within the Mongol Yuan empire. Through this network, aromatics and incense could act as media connecting the Mongol court with the “gods of the sacred mountains and rivers” (yuezhen haidu 嶽鎭海瀆), Daoist, Buddhist, and Islamic temples and churches within the empire or beyond, and maritime world at its frontier.

Aromatic culture was natural to the Mongol grasslands. Processed aromatics and incense, however, remained somewhat unfamiliar to Mongols until after the turn of the 13th century. This changed during the reign of Chinggis Qan (r. 1206–1227), when a Chinese Taoist in Samarqand introduced some Mongols to burning incense. By the reign of Qubilai (r. 1260–1294), the culture of burning incense was established in the Mongol imperial court, beginning with the sacrifice to the gods of the sacred mountains and rivers as late as 1261.

While people burned incense in offerings to the great Qan in their ordo, or felt tents, on the grassland, envoys of the Qan burned incense in offerings to the gods of the sacred mountains and rivers in the incense halls of his dual capitals of Dadu (大都, M. Khanbaliq, modern-day Beijing) and Shangdu (上都, or Xanadu in modern-day Zhenglanqi, China). By so doing, the Qan connected his empire’s territory through sacrificial rites performed by proxy. Thus, royal envoys and Daoists sacrificing to the gods of the sacred mountains and rivers joined Confucian scholars in Confucian shrines and Tibetan Buddhist monks during their “Buddhistic city tour of the Imperial City” (you huangcheng 游皇城) as performers of a great political and religious incense ritual.

Through this incense-burning culture, the Mongols inherited the traditional Chinese ideology of
“correlative resonance between Heaven and people” (tianren ganying 天人感應), expressing it with the magical, territorial, and festive qualities of Mongol culture. A representative example of this phenomenon is the you huangcheng, a Buddhistic ceremony that combined Tibetan Buddhism with a Mongol-style festival and city tour. Called gdugs dkar in Tibetan and bai sangai (白傘蓋, “white canopy”) in Chinese, the event took place every year on February 15th, and centered around a tour of the inside and outside of the imperial city after welcoming a white canopy installed beside the imperial throne in the main hall of the great Qan or Da Mingdian (大明殿). This constituted a Buddhistic and civic version of a “jāma and ǰisün feast,” a royal banquet featuring dress in one-color robes bestowed by the great Qan.

Burning incense was a cultural activity with a strong religious aspect, but it had political and economic functions as well. Economically speaking, it offered material rewards for religious temples and their people. Daoists, Buddhist monks, Confucians, and (Nestorian) Christians were highly incentivized by the political and economic benefits they gained from burning incense bestowed by the Mongol royal families. This, as a consequence, reshaped the politics, economies, and cultures of China, Iran, and Goryeo (modern Korea). Aromatics and incense from Southeast Asia all the way to Tamla 耽羅 on Korea’s Jeju Island (Danluo in Chinese) connected the material world of sea ports, palaces, and the spiritual world of sacred mountains and rivers, temples, and the Heavenly Concubine (Tianfei 天妃), namely, sea-goddess Mazu 馬祖. Thanks to incense, the Mongol Qan, from the time of Qubilai, dominated the worlds of both mountains and streams and also spirits within his realm through a network that integrated ordos and incense halls (xiangdian 香殿) with the main imperial halls of Shangdu and Dadu.

Contact : isacharleux@orange.fr

25 janvier 2023 : Séminaire des Études mongoles & sibériennes – Aubervilliers, Campus Condorcet

Nous sommes heureux de vous convier à venir à la séance du séminaire des Études mongoles & sibériennes le 25 janvier 2023 pour écouter Nadezhda Mamontova (Collegium Research Fellow, Turku Institute for Advanced Studies), pour une intervention intitulée : “Process toponymy : the use of community-engaged GIS technology for documenting Indigenous geospatial knowledge among the Evenki“, au Campus Condorcet, 14 cour des Humanités, 93322 Aubervilliers cedex., de 14h à 16h, en salle 5.067 (bâtiment de recherche nord).
Il sera également possible d’y accéder en ligne, sur inscription : isacharleux@orange.fr 

Résumé

This presentation discusses the aim and the process of designing a community-engaged open-access GIS toponymic platform, based on Indigenous Evenki place names. Most projects on Indigenous toponymy available online are either oriented towards professional use among scholars or serve as enclosed repositories of Indigenous knowledge. Toponymic atlases remain the most common form of documenting and representing Indigenous place naming systems. Yet, temporal and geographic comparisons of place names have clearly demonstrated that, along with a conventional understanding of Indigenous place names as stable and conservative, there is a dynamic model of place naming to be found in nomadic societies, when the names are not only passed through generations but also modified and created. This finding required a number of methodological approaches regarding how researchers might collect and represent geospatial concepts and place names in nomadic societies, with the use of GIS technology. This project attempts to approach this issue by creating an open digital platform that combines GIS with Indigenous vernacular cartography, place names, and a great variety of data regarding the meaning and use of toponyms, their evolution, and change. I propose to call this approach a “process toponymy” and advocate for applying a semiotic approach to documenting and representing Indigenous place names’ knowledge via GIS-based platforms.

Au plaisir de vous retrouver nombreux,
I. Charleux, G. Delaplace, D. Oparin & V. Vaté

11 janvier 2023 : Séminaire des Études mongoles & sibériennes – Aubervilliers, Campus Condorcet

Nous sommes heureux de vous convier à venir à la séance du séminaire des Études mongoles & sibériennes le 11 janvier 2023 pour écouter Claire Alix (U. Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, ArchAm), pour une intervention intitulée : “À l’origine des Inuit – Mille ans d’archéologie au cap Espenberg, Alaska“, au Campus Condorcet, 14 cour des Humanités, 93322 Aubervilliers cedex., de 14h à 16h, en salle 5.067 (bâtiment de recherche nord).
Il sera également possible d’y accéder en ligne, sur inscription : isacharleux@orange.fr 

Résumé

Présentation et projection du film ‘A Thousand Years Unfolding – Archaeology at the Cape” réalisé par Sarah Betcher (Farthest North Films) sous la direction scientifique de Claire Alix (U. Paris 1), Amber Lincoln (UAF) et Owen Mason (INSTAAR). [Film en anglais sous-titré en français]

Ce documentaire de 56 mn, réalisé dans le cadre du projet archéologique du cap Espenberg à la demande du conseil des aînés de la communauté de Shishmaref, Alaska, décrit les différentes facettes du montage et de la conduite d’un projet multidisciplinaire dans le parc national BELA : Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, au nord de la péninsule Seward. Une équipe de chercheurs franco-américaine collabore avec des membres de la communauté de Shishmaref pour fouiller, sur le site Rising Whale, des maisons en bois du 12e-13e siècles apr. J.-C., à la recherche de l’arrivée, depuis la Tchoukotka, des ancêtres directs des Inupiat d’Alaska. Les analyses interprétatives des vestiges mis au jour et les récits historiques inupiat permettent d’enrichir et d’approfondir la compréhension du patrimoine de cette région.

 

Au plaisir de vous retrouver nombreux,
I. Charleux, G. Delaplace, D. Oparin & V. Vaté